JSouza´s Biography (Biografia Book 2)

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And, the second research topic was popular politics as seen through participation in and abstention from elections, responses from "below" to the North American Free Trade Agreement and expressions of Mexican nationalism, as well as romantic notions of agency, resistance, and democracy The Romance of Democracy: Compliant Defiance in Contemporary Mexico , California Most of Gutmann's ethnographic research has been conducted in Mexico and China.

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New York: Basic Books; Phoenix Library, Frontiers of Political Science series. Ana Maria Raietparvar and Mariana Ruggieri, trans. Preface by Rolf Malungo de Souza. With Jeffrey Lesser. Global Square book series. With new Epilogue. Co-author with Sylvia Chant. Valencia, Spain: Tirant lo Blanch. London: Routledge. John Collins and Carole McGranahan, eds. Jasmine Gideon, ed. London: Edward Elgar. Berkeley: University of California Press. Matthew Gutmann and Jeffrey Lesser, eds. University of California Press.


Dorothy Hodgson, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: Palgrave-MacMillan. Dominguez and Catherine Lutz. Anthropology News 55 John Gledhill and Patience Schell, eds. Browner and Carolyn F. Sargent, eds. Sylvia Chant, ed. Edward Elgar. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Contreras Ocegueda, Eds. London: Zed.

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Gloria Careaga and Salvador Cruz Sierra, eds. In Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Michael Kimmel, R. Connell, and Jeff Hearn, eds. Barcelona: Anthropos. Santiago: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales. Un exemple mexicain. Cahiers des Ameriques Latines Paris Questions for Gender and Development Policy in the 21st Century.

Furthermore, the saliva of the triatomines contains antihemostatics, analgesic proteins, and other small molecules that inhibit blood clotting, ease the penetration of the skin, and neutralize the inflammatory response Andersen et al. Thus, this aptation increased opportunities for survival of the triatomines in the most dangerous instants of their lives, the moment when they bite and feeds on the host. Having found and transferred the host's blood to the midgut or mesenteron, these insects had to confront the high protein content of their food.

The Triatominae subfamily conserves some digestive characteristics of their entomophagous ancestors, having inherited from the reduvid predators a special mix of digestive proteins for the lysis of blood cells. The phytophagous ancestors of the early reduvids lost their ability to use trypsin, the common digestive protease, because plant sap is virtually without protein and the seeds have strong antitrypsins Savelkoul et al. In the same way the predator reduvids and the hematophagous triatomines developed the capacity to secrete catepsins in the intestine to digest the proteins found most abundantly in their food Lehane ; Ribeiro et al.

The catepsins are a family of proteases normally found in the intracellular lysosomes, which generally become active at low pH best 5. The finding of proteases trypsins in the rectal ampulla of R. Blood as feed, although rich in proteins, does not have all the nutritional elements the triatomines need to survive, and therefore, these insects as bloodsuckers needed to develop a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms that produced vitamin B thiamine, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, and biotin , which is insufficient in vertebrate blood Douglas and Beard ; Sassera et al.

These symbionts are so important that most bloodsuckers store them in bacteriocytes or mycetocytes Douglas , cells that coat the ventricle of the mesenteron in the tsetse fly or in specialized organs known as mycetomes, present, for example, in lice Anoplura Burkhart and Burkhart It is well known that the phytophagous hemipterans frequently host symbionts whose primary function is the synthesis of essential nutrients in specialized cavities or caeca of the mesenteron or in the mycetocytes McCutcheon et al.

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Nonetheless, the intestinal symbionts were lost in the predator families of Heteroptera Dolling , and for this reason, the triatomines are not expected to have inherited from their hypothetical predator ancestor cells or specialized organs to house symbionts. In fact, it has been observed that the triatomine symbionts live freely in the mesenteron lumen and are acquired through the consumption of feces of conspecifics or by cannibalism Douglas and Beard ; Schaub and Eichler ; Eichler and Schaub The quick processing of the enormous volume of ingested blood, by means of excretion of large quantities of water and salts as well as the gregarious behavior of the triatomines facilitates the transmission of symbionts among conspecifics Figueiras and Lazzari ; Kollien et al.

The reduvid fore legs experience interesting morphological modifications related to their different life styles, from predators to bloodsuckers forms. In the first case, their fore legs are usually long and adapted with adhesive organs in the tibia fossulae spongiosae to trap and manipulate the invertebrate prey Gorb and Beutel The presence of this fossula spongiosa or spongy pad is a pleisiomorphic character in Reduviidae Weirauch , Although the fore legs are more simplified in triatomines, some species exhibit similar extendible adhesive organs, which we here will call spongy pads, in both the fore and middle tibia of the adults which permit their scaling smooth surfaces Gillett and Wigglesworth ; Weirauch , , a useful adaptation for hemipterans that fly and live in trees as do species of the Rhodnius genus Beutel and Gorb These observations make less plausible the role the spongy pads may have in the adaptation to predate and climb.

It is more convenient to use the term 'aptation' to describe these forms, given that their 'function' and 'adaptation' are not obvious. Although this topic will not be furthered in this work, it opens a door for a debate and a second look at the phylogenetic importance of this group's spongy pads. Provisional studies that we have made of the presence of these organs in E.

Besides the structural aptation previously mentioned, there were also behavioral changes that made hematophagy possible. The triatomines, in contrast to other hematophagic insects like mosquitoes or tsetse flies, are insects that occupy the host's dwelling, and feed on him during the night while he sleeps. In other words, they are nest-dwelling hematophagic insects. Tree-dwelling vertebrates, like birds, sloths, reptiles, and marsupials of several classes as well as cave or burrow vertebrates, like armadillos, cavies, rabbits, rodents, and bats, are the usual hosts of triatomines. For this reason, underground lairs, nests in hollow trees, bird nests, fallen trees, palm fringes, bromeliaceous plants, cracks in the bark of trees, and similar places lodge these insects.

There are other examples where behavior can initiate evolutionary aptations for an ecological niche Futuyma As Mayr mentions: '…a change to a new niche or adaptive zone is, almost universally, started by a behavioral change. With trophic and habitat selection playing a preponderant role within an aptative zone - an ethological phenomenon - the importance of behavior is evident at the beginning of new evolutionary events. Most researchers agree that the change of 'prey' that took place in Triatominae was developed from an association between a reduvid predator and a vertebrate Schofield b ; Lehane , which result into a nidicolous hematophagy.

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This conclusion is based on phylogenetic studies and the behavioral aptations in the reduvid predators and triatomines of the present day. The majority of the present-day reduvid predators are normally active hunters, free living, that seek for and attack prey, while others adopt an ambush strategy, waiting for the prey to pass nearby to attack it by surprise, and many of them have been found living in nests and burrows of vertebrates and even feeding on the triatomines Carpintero Some of these may have been 'transitional' forms between predator and a hematophagic reduvid i.

Several authors have suggested that the members of the subfamilies Physoderinae, Reduviinae, Harpactocorinae, Emesinae, and Peiratinae are all potentially brother groups to Triatominae within Reduviidae Lent and Wygodzinsky ; Carcavallo et al. Some of the species of these predator subfamilies show morphological similarities with the triatomines, and also behavioral ones, as several of them can apparently feed on blood if they are permitted to do so; nonetheless, our knowledge of their biology is rather poor.

Currently, the solidest evidence for the relationship hypothesis, considering the sampling achieved in the Reduviidae family, suggests the Reduviinae subfamily genera Zelurus and Opisthacidius as the phylogenetic groups closest to the triatomines Hwang and Weirauch Thus, the question arises: do some of these species share morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics with the triatomines? It would be interesting to know if these reduvid predators are gregarious in nests, are active at night, prefer to seek prey near vertebrate nest, are attracted by their odors, or share other characteristics with the triatomines.

In relation to this, Hwang and Weirauch note the presence of Opisthacidius rubropictus Herrich-Schaeffer in bird nests supposedly hunting arthropods, and that it is a taxon that breaks up the monophyly of the subfamily. The habits of some species within Triatominae link this group with entomophagy. Some triatomines even today feed on invertebrates during their early and adult stages, both in natural and laboratory conditions.

For example, some juvenile instars of E.

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There are also reports of P. On the other hand, in laboratory conditions, the R. Species like B.

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Furthermore, Lorosa et al. Pontes et al. Certainly, a chain of evolutionary steps leading from the reduvid predator to the bloodsucker existed. Many of these steps were determined by the early contact of the reduvids with vertebrates. The new vertebrate species occupied a greater range of ecological niches and practiced a greater variety of life styles than the early reptiles, and many of them were small organisms with the habit of nesting in trees and underground burrows Ericson et al.

It is reasonable to assume that such birds and mammals nests were continually invaded and colonized by several opportunistic arthropods, probably scavengers and saprophages feeding on organic remains and taking advantage of the vertebrate refuge Lehane The ancestral reduvid predators were attracted by this abundant prey offer. Presumably, these early triatomines fed on the abundant soft invertebrates in the nests and burrows e. It is probable that these 'bites' were initially exploratory and only occurred in a casual manner.

The close and long association with nidicolous mammals and birds eventually resulted in the specialization of feeding directly and efficiently on vertebrates per se , minimizing the time devoted to finding nourishment Lehane Aside from providing abundant food and protection from various enemies, the nest also provided a favorable and constant microclimate Heger et al. The protection against extreme climatic conditions led to reproduction that depended less on the seasonal changes and an increase in the population density of the early triatomines. Furthermore, the aggregation in closed spaces near the host produced other effects and offered advantages: i facilitated mating and the acquisition of symbiotic microorganisms through the consumption of feces of conspecifics and through cannibalism; ii permitted the development of an alarm system based on intercommunication with others, which is an advantage when facing predators; iii provoked the production and excretion of large quantities of waste with chemical signals that marked the way back to the refuge after foraging Schofield b.

All the members of the Triatominae subfamily Heteroptera, Reduviidae are fit for bloodsucking hematophagy. Their aptations, both the inherited adaptations as well as the exaptations modeled by the environment, facilitated and affected the hematophagy since their reduvid predator ancestors until to the present-day triatomines. Certain primitive characteristics, originally developed by the ancestral reduvids, eased and modeled the triatomines' hematophagy.

Examples such as mouthparts, antihemostatic mechanisms, membranaceous connections between segments, saliva, and digestive symbionts are appropriate aptations for blood consumption and digestion. However, the decisive event which probably made possible the jump from predation to hematophagy was a change of behavior: early association of a reduvid predator with a nesting vertebrate permitted the change from an arthropod prey to a vertebrate host. This intimate and prolonged association with birds and nidicolous mammals eventually developed into a specialization to feed directly and efficiently from the blood of these animals.

If we consider that the trophic and habitat selection plays a preponderant role within an aptative zone, the importance of an ethological phenomenon in the beginning of new evolutionary events is clear. No, I said, because as a character he was insignificant. I need to retract that statement: one can say anything about him except that he is insignificant.